“What human beings need is not utopia (‘no place’) but entopia (‘in place’) a real city which they can build, aplace which satisfies the dreamer and is acceptable to the scientist, a place where the artist and the builder merge”Constantinos A. Doxiadis
Most cities and towns of today are the products of an evolutionary process in which some of the larger villages or a cluster of villages have grown and diversified at a faster pace than others. While census definitions of urban areas have usually emphasized the size and diversified occupational structure of the population,settlements too have grown in geographical size and often diversified in terms of their functions as market places, administrative capitals, industrial centres or tourist towns.
No doubt, the growth and diversification of human settlements into towns and cities have been aided by human interventions of many kinds of which the efforts to plan their physical features or lend them a distinctive architectural character have been of special interest to town planners, architects and historians. India takes pride in the archeological evidence of planned cities as early as in 3000 B.C., though none of the cities of Indus Valley Civilization period appear to have survived long enough to influence the building of similar planned settlements, in later times. We also know of Indraprastha and Pataliputra as planned cities of olden times but with no surviving architectural features, they are remembered as little more than old names of today’s Delhi and Patna. Kurukshetra has become more of a metaphor for a battleground for just causes than the name of a planned ancient city. A long history of invasions and internecine wars among kings, regional chieftains and other war lords have left us with only a few forts, temples and palaces of ancient or medieval India. There are not many cities of even 17th or 18th centuries except perhaps Jaipur, Udaipur and few others that have been able to preserve their special architectural or planning features up to the present day. Elsewhere, especially in Europe, some of the ancient as well as
medieval cities have survived the onslaught of time or marauders and retained much of their charm and physical features. The Roman towns in many parts of Europe are living examples of the efforts of human beings to shape their habitations scientifically and aesthetically.
In modern times, the end of the colonial era led to the emergence of new nations as also the redrawing of national boundaries and of provinces within those nations. This in turn necessitated creation of new cities or towns to serve as administrative capitals of new nation states or their provinces. There are no doubt some examples of new towns and cities developed by colonial governments too essentially for administrative reasons – like the creation of summer capitals in hill stations or cantonment towns. There have also been more seriously planned cities of colonial times like New Delhi and Canberra. Brasilia, Islamabad, Abuja and Putrajaya are some of the new administrative capitals planned and developed in the postcolonial era. Another set of planned townships that have come up in many parts of the modern world are those developed by large industrial corporations especially the steel
and automobile makers. In India, Tata Iron and Steel Company developed the planned township of Jamshedpur which later inspired building of similar large integrated townships especially by public sector undertakings. Bhilai, Rourkela and Bokaro are large greenfield townships which have grown and spilled over to their neighbourhoods to become some of the most cosmopolitan cities of India. The first major effort after independence to develop a wholesome planned city in the country culminated in the building of Chandigarh. Planned with painstaking details by a team of architects and planners led by the redoubtable French architect Corbusier, Chandigarh inspired the building of two more planned capital cities – Bhubaneshwar and Gandhinagar. Perhaps, the success of Chandigarh should have inspired the building of many more planned green field towns and cities all across the country.
Though, this did not happen, preparation of master plans for existing cities and towns and planned development of new city centres or satellite townships have indeed become a serious preoccupation of many State Governments in the country.
Planning or building new cities have perhaps not been easy decisions for governments or city authorities. More than the problems of mobilising the required financial or skilled human resources, perhaps, what has truly deterred them is the fear of criticism – of the location of the new cities, scope of the plans, the consultative process involved and the administrative arrangements for management of the cities once they are built. Planners and developers of new cities have to face many dilemmas and deal with many imponderables. These include issues like how much of history, heritage and culture of the region should or can be captured in the design of a new city which is being built for future generations or may be how to balance aesthetics and functionality. How much of the land could be set apart as open spaces or for recreation without compromising the financial viability of the plans? How to ensure that the plans promote social cohesion and also prevent the formation of illegal or squatter settlements? Or say, how to devise a safe, reliable and energy efficient transportation system for the city? Planning a robust management structure for the planned city after it is built is another area of challenge. How does one build in
provisions against willful violations of planning norms by builders or the arbitrariness of the city authorities themselves?
When the new state of Chhattisgarh was born on 1st of November 2000,Raipur, the largest city of the state was named its capital. Raipur has for many decades been a vibrant market place in central India. Yet, with an already burdened civic infrastructure, it was ill-equipped to take on its newfound role as the administrative capital of a rapidly growing state. There was a prolonged debate on the need for a new city, its location and the mode of financing its development. It is indeed a remarkable achievement that the people of Chhattisgarh and its political
leaders could arrive at a consensus on the building of a large green field city close to Raipur. The new city which has been named ‘Naya Raipur’ would at once serve as the administrative capital of the State and also cater to the infrastructural needs of industry and trade in the region. Many surveys and studies were undertaken before
deciding on the precise location of the city. Planners have taken into account the existence of a number of human habitations, water bodies and wooded areas in the proposed location and woven those features in to the physical plan of the city. The development plan covers a total area of 237.42 sq.kms, out of which the core area alone would be spread over 95.22 sq.kms. Development would be undertaken in phases and the target population for the city in 2031 is 5.6 lacs.
The Urban Design of Naya Raipur is a blend of the traditional with the futuristic, lending elegance to its major physical features and providing a soothing ambience to its inhabitants. Fast and convenient connectivity to Raipur and other large cities of Chhattisgarh would receive utmost attention while finalizing the transportation plan of the new city. Building an access controlled expressway from National Highway No. 6 and a short railway line to the new city from the Raipur – Titlagarh – Vizagapatnam railway line and integrating the two with an intra-city Bus
Rapid Transport System (BRT) would form the core of a mass transportation plan for Naya Raipur. Dedicated bus lanes, cycling tracks and safe pedestrian walkways would complement the BRT and help the development of an energy efficient and environmentally sustainable city. The road sections and junctions would be designed to be friendly for children and persons with physical disabilities.
Planning for housing of the citizens would be another major challenge. Here,integrate them with the rest of the city. The Development Plan has set apart large open spaces as well as areas for sports, recreation and entertainment. It would help people of all walks of life to come together – may be to watch a game of cricket at a
stadium, a boat ride with the children in a lake or may be just for a brisk walk in one of the many parks.
The city is also expected to generate new employment opportunities for the citizens. Government offices, the proposed business district, educational institutions and entertainment complexes would generate most of the fresh employment. The plan also provides for Industrial Parks for Information Technology, Gems and Jewellery, Apparels, Handicrafts and other light non-polluting industries. Naya Raipur with its high quality infrastructure should emerge as a major educational and cultural hub for the entire state and all efforts would have to be made to achieve this potential. The Institutional Area should be able to accommodate many national as well as state level
educational and training institutions, laboratories and research centers. Museums,libraries, exhibition halls and theatres for live performances will also have to come up,to enliven and enrich the city’s cultural life.
Naya Raipur Development Authority which has prepared this development plan with the help of a number of competent city planners and after a series of consultations with professional organizations and special interest groups as well as elected representatives of people realizes that it will have to live with another dilemma
for some more time. Being a green field city, Naya Raipur of today does not have a body populace or a constituency of citizens of its own, who would dream about its future, continuously, provide ideas and suggestions for its development, keep watch over implementation schedules and jealously guard against unsavory interferences
with its plans. The city will fill up only slowly and it would be some more years before it acquires a critical mass of vigilant citizens with a sense of belonging to a planned, modern and eco-friendly city. We surely are not without friends till then and are conscious that a large number of well wishers within and outside Chhattisgarh
would lend all support and encouragement to make Naya Raipur a model and a source of inspiration for city planners, architects, builders and policy makers anywhere in the world.
1.1 Objectives of Naya Raipur.
A satellite city to Raipur holding Capital function is the primary identity of Naya Raipur. It will be
modern in the use of technology, uphold worthy traditions and core values, and conserve the prevailing man- nature symbiotic culture as well as abundant natural & cultural assets in the region.The citizens will be offered a wide range of living options with equity and dignity. The city will strive to make an impact in the following role:
• An agent of economic change and social transformation in the state.
• An efficient engine of growth and prosperity.
• A servicing hub not only in manufacturing of goods but also in Information Technology and Bio-
• A financial centre of the region.
• Hub of trade and hospitality sectors in Naya Raipur
• Hub of cultural services which would supplement local economy.
• Hub of affordable and high quality medical services.
• Hub of quality educational facilities and strive to develop as a knowledge base.
However, the vision of the city in physical terms, i.e. its form and function in two as well as three
dimensional terms is delineated in a subsequent section.
For all the lofty or mundane purposes bestowed on this city, a comprehensive exercise wasundertaken to find a perfect location for it. An imaginary circle of 50 km radius was drawn around Raipur and this massive area was divided into four quadrants. Each quadrant was analyzed in context of regional development, existing development, climatic factors, flora and fauna, water resources,transport network etc and the efforts yielded the present site southeast of Raipur at about 15 km distance, close to Mana Airport. The site selection methodology and site profile are detailed out infollowing chapters.
1.2 Methodology Adopted in Plan-Making.
While venturing to prepare the Development Plan for Naya Raipur, basic studies were made in the form of a secondary survey of data on Chandigarh (the first state capital of independent India) and Raipur, the elder sister and the most important “organic” metropolis in the region.Primary studies related to existing village population, site conditions, those related to water source/water table etc were also carried out.On the selected site, a thorough analysis was made of the given assets and constraints. From this emerged a four-focus city structure, cruciform in shape. The foci are major work-centres, namely the capital complex in the east, the freight complex/light industries in the north, the software hub in the west and the institutional/tourist hub in the south. The activity corridors emerging from the four fociintersect at the CBD/cultural complex/city park at the geographical centre of the city.
The space quantum against each activity/work-centre was then ascertained going by accepted thumbrule of the concerned industry/trade/activity, to case of capital complex, and government jobs exact figures were taken into consideration. The resultant space quantum was then allocated on twodimension on the structure plan and final quantum, shape, location, was defined by exact boundaries/roads on the plan. With iterations, the allocated spaces were again translated in terms of number of jobs and the total number of jobs in the city arrived at. With a population of 5.6 lakhs, the Naya Raipur City is expected to generate approximately 2.2 lakh jobs, with an assumed workforce participation rate of 40%. The high standards of physical and social infrastructure adopted for the city
will be able to cope with the maximum capacity of the city.
1.3 Physical Plan, Feasibility and Implementation.
The present Development Plan, published hereby, is essentially a physical plan, depicting policy choices in all physical aspects of city, i.e uses of land, housing, work activities, leisure, transportation and communication, physical and social infrastructure etc. A rudimentary feasibility check has been done to understand the necessary fund sources and flow, how and from where the city will start and grow therefrom, the sources of revenue etc. This is a supporting exercise to assure that the policy choices and the basic land use allocation is feasible and over time and in the planned manner the city will be able to reach its goals. It is envisaged that the NRDA will prepare detail plans within the prescribed zones of Development Plan. Various sizes of plots shall be carved out and allotted after assigning plot level land use as permissible within the given zone.For certain areas, the NRDA may dispose land in bulk, e.g. one whole residential sector of 64 ha, for which design brief shall be a pre-condition for allotment. Similar design brief may be prepared for projects like IT Park, Golf Course etc.A detailed feasibility study has been separately carried out, which charts out definite path for funds,phasing, revenues, and city management. This study corroborates the same basic assurance offered by the rudimentary study. However, only the rudimentary feasibility study and not the details have been made part of the Development Plan.
1.4 Planning and Management of the City
Under the Chhattisgarh Nagar Tatha Gram Nivesh Adhiniyam 1973, and C.G. Bhumi vikash rules 1984 the Naya Raipur Development Authority has been formed as a Special Area Development Authority to plan, implement and administer Naya Raipur. The NRDA is already working out the future tasks, which will be added on to its kitty especially in light of the 74th Constitutional Amendment.
At present an area of 237.42 sq. km is delineated fully under the control of NRDA, detailed as under:
• Naya Raipur City with green belt (Planning Layer I) – 95.22 sq km- (Proposed as City Proper to be acquired in bulk with a 500 m green belt around) Tasks-Complete control in plan making, implementation and administration
• Peripheral Zone (Layer II ) – 130.10 sq.km. – (Proposed as predominantly rural area with ancillary facilities and suitable uses, not to be acquired in bulk) Tasks- Plan making, basic infrastructure provision, development permission, administration
•Airport Zone (Layer III) – 11.92 sq km- ( land to be acquired in bulk and handed over to Airport Authority of India for implementation according to their plan after concurrence by NRDA) The NRDA is expected to be corroborated by the following agencies among others, in executing its mammoth responsibilities.<
• Chhattisgarh State Housing and Environment Department.
• Chhattisgarh Housing Board – Building model housing colony for a cross section of government employees and officers in the state.
• Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board
• Chhattisgarh public Health Engineering Department and Water Resource Department – Water supply and lake linking project for the city.
• Chhattisgarh State Rural Development Department – Rehabilitation and funds for rural development
• Chhattisgarh State Public Works Department.
The state of Chhattisgarh was constituted on 1st November 2000, thereby opening up new opportunities for development in the region. The state of Chhattisgarh envisions itself as a modern state to provide its people with improved quality of life. It was in conformity with this broad vision that the Government of Chhattisgarh envisaged the creation of a new Capital City by the name of Naya Raipur for the State that would not only establish the State’s identity, but also depict the hopes and aspirations of the people of Chhattisgarh.
An agent of economic change and social transformation in the state.
An efficient engine of growth and prosperity.
A servicing hub not only in manufacturing of goods but also in Information Technology and Bio-
2.2 Methodology for Site Selection
Raipur, the present day State capital has an immense potential to develop into a metropolis on account of its location and its growing importance as a major node in the trade network of Central India. Considering this latent value of the present day capital Raipur, it was decided to locate Naya Raipur – the proposed new city in close proximity to Raipur. Accordingly, a region of 50 km radius around Raipur was demarcated for selecting a site for the Naya Raipur city. The final site was selected after adetailed analysis based on the site suitability criteria with respect to several parameters
The entire region for site selection was divided into three main zones based on the relative distance from the present day State Capital as also into four different quadrants for location analysis. The analysis of the different quadrants has been carried out on the basis of certain select parameters as discussed below:
i. Transport and Infrastructure Related CriteriaLinkage to existing transport network and easy future connectivity.Linkage to existing infrastructure network including water, power and telecommunications. Availability of water sources
ii. Land Availability & SuitabiltyAvailability of Government land. Land otherwise unsuitable for
agriculture, mining and quarrying.Land with development friendly contours and other physical features. Land with less number of existing human settlements. Land with minimum forest cover and wildlife. Land with a gentle slope to facilitate easy drainage and discharge of effluents. Soil conditions with good bearing capacity for structural stability.
iii. Environmental considerationsEnvironment friendly location. Favourable climatic conditions.
iv. Economic CatalystsExisting industries, mining resources, reserve forests, wildlife sanctuaries and other tourist attractions act as economic catalysts.Airport, Software Technology Park to act as anticipated economic catalysts.Proximity to the Raipur City.
v. Other ParametersLand Value in the region. Existing Airport Implications. Local Landscape Features
2.2.1 Transport and Infrastructure.The existing transport and other physical infrastructure with potential for augmentation to fulfil the new city’s demand is an important determinant for deciding the location of the proposed city. Good connectivity by road and rail is an important decisive factor to decide the success of the project.
184.108.40.206 Roadways.NH-6: On the west it connects the region with Nagpur as also Nasik and Mumbai through NH-2 after Dhule. On the east it connects Sambalpur and leads to Kolkata. While the stretch of NH-6 between the city of Raipur and Durg handles major volume of traffic because of the tremendous interdependence and interaction of the industrial towns of Bhilai, Durg, Borai industrial growth centre and the capital city of Raipur, the stretch beyond Raipur towards Sambalpur handles relatively less volume of traffic and thus has the potential of handling higher volume of traffic in future.
NH 200: It connects Raipur with Bilaspur. The stretch of NH-200 lying within the concerned region has potential
mining belts on both the sides, cement plants and two industrial growth centers of Orla and Siltara in its vicinity
thus making it highly prone to present and future heavy traffic volume.
NH-43: This road connects Raipur with Koraput and Bheemunipatnam on the south-east and further to Vishakhapatnam through NH-5. This road links the concerned region with the port city of Vishakhapatnam. Thus this is a major road handling goods traffic to and from Bhilai and Raipur to Vishakhapatnam.
SH-5 links Raipur with Dhamtari where it connects with NH-43 and has the potential to act as a major reliever to
NH-43 in handling goods and passenger traffic, within the concerned region.
The other important road is the one connecting Raipur to Baloda Bazar passing through the prospective mining area and with the potential of handling high traffic volume while putting this area under intensive economic use.
Thus the potential roads for future linkages to the capital city are the stretches of NH-6 from Raipur towards Sambalpur and the NH-43 stretch from Raipur to Abhanpur.
220.127.116.11 RailwaysThe region enjoys very good railway connectivity. The railway lines run almost parallel to the National and State Highways. The main Mumbai – Howrah railway line passes through Raipur dividing the region into two halves, namely the Northern and the Southern halves. The other railway lines are from Raipur to Bilaspur and Raipur to Visakhapatnam. The existing railway stations within the delineated region are as listed below:
1. Towards Mumbai/Nagpur-Raipur, Sarona, Kumhari, Bhilai, Durg and Rasmaidan
2. Towards Dhamtari-Raipur City, Mana, Bhatgaon, Kendri, Abhanpur, Karvel The line to Rajim has two Railway Station, Manikchaari and Nawapara
3. Towards Vishakhapatnam-Mandir Hasuad, Lakholi, Arang, Belonda
4. Towards Bilaspur-Urkura, Mandhar, Siliari, Baiknath, Tilda, Hatbandh
18.104.22.168 Airways There are three airports in the sub-region. Two of the three existing airports – near Tilda and Jamul are private while the one at Mana is public. The Mana airport is about 13 km away from the city of Raipur towards the South East. This airport presently has limited facilities
2.2.2 Availability of Water Resources
The region delineated for location of the proposed new city is dotted with water bodies in the form of lakes,
ponds, rivers and irrigation canals. Water from the three lakes – Kumhari, Pirdaon and Kurud can be tapped for supplying water to the Naya Raipur. The ground water is available at a depth of around 250 ft. to 400 ft. Three rivers cross the delineated region – River Mahanandi is a perennial river while the other two viz., Seonath and Kharun are seasonal rivers
River Mahanandi being perennial in nature is also reinforced with water from Pairi and Sukha and has the capacity to discharge the requisite amount of water for the proposed Naya Raipur.
2.2.3 Land Availability & Suitability
22.214.171.124 Availability of Government Land
The availability of Government land has an important bearing on the site selection process as cost and time spent for land acquisition can be reduced substantially with the utilization of Government land. Refer figure 2.10 for the availability of government land in the different Tehsils of Durg, Dhamda,Patan, Abhanpur, Tilda and Raipur. High concentration of huge chunks of Government owned land is present along the river Mahanadi near Arang & Abhanpur and between the Baloda Bazar Road and Kharun River.
126.96.36.199 Land otherwise unsuitable for Agriculture, Mining and Quarrying
The region is well irrigated with a double cropping pattern being practised in the Raipur district. Therefore it would be prudent to locate the site for the capital city so that it has least effect on agricultural land. Abhanpur Tehsil on the south-eastern quadrant has some upland / marginal land,which is unsuitable for agriculture. Moreover, this land does not contain the mining areas.
188.8.131.52 Land with development-friendly Contours and other physical features
In general, the land in the site selection region gently slopes towards the west. The highest contour level as indicated on the topo-sheet is 320 m above the sea level. The region has various physical features in the form of lakes – the largest being located near Bhilai, uplands, dispersed forest covers,etc. The region surrounding Mandir Hasaud also has a number of big water bodies.
184.108.40.206 Land with few existing Human Settlements
The abadi areas are uniformly distributed over the fertile rice cultivated plain of the Mahanadi. Thus,the uplands/marginal lands will be favourable for the location of Naya Raipur.
The site selection region does not have a widespread forest cover except for some protected forests near Tilda, Mohrenga, Kendri and around the confluence of Mahanadi and Sukha river.
2.2.4 Environmental Considerations. The mining areas are mostly located to the north of the region stretching from northwest to northeast.The cement plant at Siltara is in the northern part of the region and the Bhilai Steel Plant, Borai Industrial growth centre and ACC cement plant are located on the western side of the region along the NH-6. These are the air polluting zones as huge quantities of dust and smoke emanate from the
various industrial and mining activities in the region.
The predominant wind flow is from the southwest direction. However, in the post-monsoon and winter months the predominant wind direction is from the northeast. The trend starts varying from the month of March and by April the wind direction is from west and southwest. The wind speed in general ranges between 2.9 km. per hr. to 8.69 km. per hr.
Table 2.1: Wind Data for site selection region in Chhattisgarh
It is quite evident that the dust and pollution laden air zone stretches from south-west to north-east as these zones contain the mining and the industrial belt. Thus, environmentally the southeastern part of the site selection region is the non-polluting zone and is suitable for the location of the Naya Raipur.
220.127.116.11 Land conducive to Drainage and Effluent Discharge
In general, the region delineated for site selection has good drainage and irrigation network.However, the effluent will need to be treated before disposal and this must happen in the downstream area, i.e. towards the northern side. It appears that the S-E Quadrant has the potential for a well-planned drainage and effluent discharge system and is, therefore, suitable for locating the city .
18.104.22.168 Economic Catalysts
The presence of industrial growth centers (industrial, economic activity centre) on the northern and the western side of the delineated region would acts as an economic catalyst for the overall development of the new Capital City Region. The following industries in the vicinity are bound to play a role in the progress of the Region and the State as a whole.
• Cement plants (such as ACC and Century) on the northern and western side of Raipur city.
• The Bhilai steel plant on the western side.
• The mining site on the northern side of NH-6
2.2.5 Presence of Airport
An airport acts as an engine of economic growth. The setting of the Naya Raipur with respect to the location of
the airport is thus an important factor where the proximity to the airport gives the added benefit of improved connectivity.
2.2.6 Quadrant Analysis
After an analysis of the different quadrants based on the various parameters discussed in the foregoing sections,the southeast quadrant was found to be most suitable for the locating the proposed new Capital City
Strengths of the southeast quadrant:
Availability of water due to proximity to Mahanadi River and Mahanadi Canal.
Absence of mining area.
Availability of barren/non-agricultural land.
Abundant availability of government owned land.
Proximity to Raipur City.
Proximity to NH-6 and NH-43.
Conducive traffic condition on NH-43 and NH-6 for providing accessibility to the new City.
Proximity to the Raipur-Vizainagaram and Mumbai-Kolkata Railway Line.
Presence of natural features like water bodies for creation of recreational spots in the city.
Proximity to the Airport, but availability of land outside the restricted Air Funnel zone.
Zone free from pollution due to industrial centres.
The other important factors that have been taken into consideration for deciding the spatial location of
the Naya Raipur is –
i. The New Capital City should not be so close to the present day capital city of Raipur that both the old and the new cities merge together due to agglomerating effect and the befitting image of the New Capital City is put to jeopardy.
ii. The site should not be so distant that Naya Raipur has a completely independent existence and the existing Raipur City becomes irrelevant.
2.2.7 Proposed Site
Based on a detailed analysis of the region delineated for the location of Naya Raipur, a site has been selected about 15 km away to the southeast of the existing Raipur. The site enjoys the advantage of the presence of the Mahanadi Canal on the southeastern side and the NH-43 on the southwestern side.The existing airport is situated between Raipur city and Naya Raipur.
3.1 Defining the Areas
The NRDA Planning area has been divided into three Planning layers namely Layer-I, Layer-II and Layer-III.
3.2 Spatial extent of the proposed Naya Raipur including 500 meter wide green belt (Layer I)
Naya Raipur along with the green belt is spread over a total area of 95.22 sq. Km. It covers ten villages fully and twenty three villages partly
However, of all the above-mentioned villages only the following 13 abadis viz. Chhatauna, Nawagaon(north), Sendh, Reiko, Chicha, Kotrabhata, Rakhi, Kayabandha, Jhang, Tuta, Uparwara, Khapri and Nawagaon (south) are actually included within the Naya Raipur boundary.
3.2.1 Linkages and Surroundings
The site selected for Naya Raipur is bound by NH-6 connecting Mumbai-Kolkata on the north and NH 43 connecting the city to Visakhapatnam on the west. The site also has good railway connectivity on account of the Mumbai-Howrah line in close proximity.
3.3 Spatial Extent of the Naya Raipur Peripheral Region (Layer II)
The Naya Raipur Peripheral Region (referred as NRP hereafter) covers a total area of 130.28 sq. Km. Villages, which are fully included in the NRP Region are as stated in table
Apart from the nine villages mentioned above there are 19 villages, which are partly included within Naya Raipur peripheral region.
3.4 Airport Zone (Layer III)
Layer III fully includes two villages – Ramchandi & Baroda and partially includes Mana extending over an area of 11.92 sq.km.
3.5 NRDA Planning Area.
The layers I, II and III together constitute the NRDA Planning area (23742.63 Ha or 237.42 sq.km.).
3.5.1 Physiography of the NRDA area.
The site has a gentle topography with its slope ranging from 0% to 5%. The flat terrain with natural drains flowing towards Northeast direction allows unhindered flexibility for an efficient transportation system.
22.214.171.124 Drainage Pattern
The NRDA area is dotted with water bodies in the form of lakes, ponds, nallas and irrigation canals.The area falls in the irrigation command of Left Main Canal System, on the eastern side.
The Naya Raipur and its Peripheral Region fall under three stages of geological formation viz., Raipur Stage (Chandi Formation), Charmuria Stage and Gundardehi. As per IS:1984, “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures”, the Naya Raipur Site including the Raipur city falls under Seismic Zone I which is considered fairly stable against seismic forces.
126.96.36.199 Hydrogeology / Ground Water Availability
The study carried out in the Project report by Watson Solutions for Government of Chhattisgarh found that a thick band offers conditions favourable for the occurrence of ground water. The average depth of water level in open wells ranges from 6 to 10m below ground level.
The main soil types found on the site are Yellow soil, Red soil and Alluvial and Sandy loamy soil,which are suitable for construction.
In general the region is characterised by dry and warm climate. Summers are very hot, and last from March to middle of June. Winter is between October and February. Monsoon commences in the 2nd week of June and lasts till end of September.
The average annual rainfall in the area is generally around 1400 mm. Rains are predominant during July & August. On an average there are 61 rainy days in a year. The Raipur District receives 87.1% of the total rainfall from the southwest monsoon during June to September. The winter – rainfall accounts for 9% of the total rainfall. During the Monsoon the maximum rainfall occurs during the month of August where mean monthly rainfall was recorded at 363.7 mm. In monsoon season, the mean annual rainfall is 1332 mm.
D. Wind Direction
The predominant wind direction is south-western. In the post monsoon and winter months (December to March) the wind direction is from the northeast.
The NRDA planning area consists of 41 villages covering a total of 23742.63 Ha. The Existing Land Use Plan of these 41 villages was adopted under the provisions of section 69(B) read with section 15(3) of the Chhattisgarh Nagar Tatha Gram Nivesh Adhiniyam 1973 (no. 23 of 1973) by the Housing and Environment Department, Government of Chhattisgarh vide notification ref. no. 37, dated 20.06.2002.
The following table shows the existing land use distribution in the NRDA Planning Area:
Post- publication period of the existing land use plan for NRDA Planning Area has seen many new developments coming up like the Muktanagana Open Air Museum, FCI Godowns, Shradhani Durbar and a number of facilities and utilities like schools, petrol pumps etc.
5.1 Vision and Concept for Naya Raipur
5.1.1 The Vision
Naya Raipur would be a planned and designed new city of the 21st century to be a focus of socioeconomic and cultural life of the state of Chhattisgarh having its role and recognition at national and international levels. The new city would be eco-friendly integrated in its inspiring existing landscape; efficient, healthy; modern, but caring for its traditional values.
The new city of Naya Raipur would be:
Set in its natural surroundings thus conserving its existing landscape to include major city-park, botanical park, jungle safari, theme parks, integrated sports complex and a golf course.
Accessed by an eight-lane expressway, shall be equipped with modern mass transit system coupled with a city wide pedestrian corridor linking all major urban activities.
Lively and vibrant in character with shopping malls, multiplexes, food courts, restaurants and other intensive urban activities and recreational areas.
An intelligent city with full use of information and communication technology.
A visually pleasing cityscape in tune with the aesthetic principles of urban design and landscaping
Equipped with state of the art physical, social and economic infrastructure – providing the city with high degree of urban convenience & cleanliness and thus with investor friendly environment.
The city is designed for a population of 5.6 lakh. The city has two prominent gateways that mark entry to the Naya Raipur City – one to the north and the other to the west. Naya Raipur has the following precincts:
i. Government Complex to include Secretariat, Assembly, Government offices, and PoliceHeadquarters area.
ii. Cultural Heart to include Museum, Art Gallery, Library, Theatres, Convention centre and International Centre.
iii. City Centre to include city level shopping malls, commercial offices, restaurants, multiplexes and other areas of recreation.
iv. University including research and institutional complexes.
v. Software Technology, Exhibition and Business centers.
vi. Central City Park around an existing vast water body as one of the biggest city parks in the
country. Park and Sports Centre in the North end to include urban forest, theme park and sports complex. City Park South to include Theme Park, Jungle Safari, Golf Course and Film City.
vii. Transport and integrated freight complex to service the city and its industrial area.
viii. Living areas with medium density development for the creation of a peaceful environment
envisaged for the city.
i. An efficient and smooth Mass Rapid Transit System running linearly along the North-South axis of the city.
ii. City level pedestrian corridor, and
iii. A continuous green and open-space spine running centrally along the city spine and containing sub-city level facilities.
5.1.3 The Form
The physical form of the Naya Raipur has been developed in conformity with the overall vision of a
Smart and eco-friendly city.
The physical form of the transport network system is a blend of three forms:
The linear form is enabled by the proposed rail based, medium capacity system supported by the main
north-south activity green corridor.The two axial road corridors provide the cruciform. The longer axial corridor runs along the activity green corridor. The minor axial corridor runs orthogonal to the longer axial at about its mid length.
At the termini of the above corridors are located the major activities like the Capitol Complex, the
Software Technology Park, the University and Education & Research Complex, the Transport and Logistics Hub and the Integrated Freight Complex.
Along the two axial corridors, at their mid sectors are the Central Business District, the government offices, the City Centre Park and other Social & Cultural Institutions.
A grid of residential sectors is superimposed on these two forms, providing the necessary flexibility and integrating people with activities. The minor axial corridor provides the grand vista.
A grid of 800 m x 800 m forms the typical minor residential sector housing a population of 16,000. Four such grids together form the major grid.
The concept establishes a hierarchical system of urban development in terms of physical and social
infrastructure, transportation network, institutional, commercial, and recreational and other activities.The central zone of proposed development becomes the heart of the city and is framed by green belts that serve as an interface between the city centre and the planning units and neighbourhoods
5.1.4 The Peripheral Region
A peripheral region includes 28 surrounding villages referred to as the Naya Raipur Peripheral Region (NRPR) to act as a buffer between the proposed Naya Raipur City and Raipur with an idea to control and regulate development in the region. A balanced Settlement Development Strategy for this area is evolved by providing access to infrastructure through a well-defined Settlement Pattern.
6.1.1 Chhattisgarh: Population Growth Trends
As per 2001 Census, the total population of Chhattisgarh is 20.83 million. The state of Chhattisgarh has registered a population growth rate of 15.5% during 1991-2001, as compared to the average all India growth rate of 21.54 % during the same period
6.1.2 Population of Naya Raipur
Naya Raipur city is planned for a population of about 5.6 lakh in 2031. This new city would attract population from Raipur, the adjoining region and to some extent other parts of India. An exercise in this respect has been conducted with respect to the broad region, which is 50 km radius around Raipur.
The percentage share of the region’s population to the total population of the state is likely to increase from 12.97 % in 1991 to 23.75 % in 2031.
6.1.3 Rural – Urban Composition of the Projected Population of the Region
The rural – urban population for the region has been given in Table 6.3. This has been worked out considering the rural population increasing at the present growth rate up to the year 2031.
6.1.4 Population Projection of Urban Areas in the Region
The urban population has been divided into three sections: Raipur Urban Agglomeration, Durg – Bhilai Urban Agglomeration and other urban areas in region. As per 2001 census the population in these categories are as follows:
It is proposed to maintain the present balance in the urban components of the region through keeping the same proportion by a balanced regional development. Thus, the projected population of the three components is worked out as follows. Total urban population of region in 2031 will be 55.16 lakhs.
6.1.5 Population Component of Naya Raipur
Naya Raipur would be taking functions from the Raipur city and also would have impact in the region. Being a special intensive activity in the new town it may also attract population from other parts of Chhattisgarh and also from other states of India. The population of Naya Raipur would affect the population projection in Raipur and Durg – Bhilai Urban Agglomeration. The population of Naya Raipur is planned as 150,000 in 2011 to 560,000 in 2031
The population estimates for Naya Raipur are related to and dependent on the development of various economic activities and other socio-economic and physical conditions. These may be reviewed after the decadal census.
6.1.6 Age-Sex Composition
A study of the Age Sex Structure of new city of Chandigarh and the present day State capital of Raipur reveals that the age category 15-59 i.e., the working age group is higher as mostly the population is attracted for jobs to the new city. The age-sex pyramid of Raipur gives an idea of the age-sex structure of Raipur in 1991.
6.1.7 Sex Ratio
The migration to new cities is usually male biased as single men move in to take up jobs
Since, Naya Raipur has a similar function as that of Chandigarh, Naya Raipur may have a low sex ratio as compared to that of Chhattisgarh or the present day State Capital of Raipur. To deal with such a situation and to work for better balance of sex ratio, it is important that housing and other social infrastructure such as schools and health facilities be provided ahead of or simultaneous with job creation.
6.2 Population Distribution in Naya Raipur
As regards village population, abadi area of village Rakhi shall be acquired and the population relocated to sector adjacent to the capitol complex. The population of Khandwa abadi falling under the golf course shall be relocated in the peripheral area only.