Source:World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering Vol:7, No:11, 2013

Satisfaction Survey of a Displaced Population Affected by a New Planned Development of Naya Raipur, India – Sagar Jajoo


Abstract—Urban planning is the need of the hour in a rapidly developing county like India. In essence, urban planning enhances
the quality of land at a reasonable cost. Naya (New) Raipur is the new planned capital of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh, and is one of
India’s few planned cities. Over the next decade it will drastically change the landscape of the state of Chhattisgarh. This new planned
development is quintessential in growing this backward region and providing for future infrastructure. Key questions that arise are: How
are people living in the surrounding region of New Raipur affected by its development? Are the affected people satisfied with
compensation and rehabilitation that has been provided by the New Raipur Development Authority? To answer these questions, field
research study in the form of questionnaires, interviews and site visits was conducted. To summarize the findings, while a majority of the
surveyed population was dissatisfied with the rehabilitation and compensation provided by the New Raipur Development Authority,
they were very positive about the success of the new development.
Most thought that the new city would help their careers, improve job opportunities, improve prospects for their future generations, and
benefit society as a whole.
To improve rehabilitation schemes for the future, the reasons for the negative sentiment brewing amongst the villagers regarding the
monetary compensation was investigated. Most villagers deemed the monetary compensation to be lacking as they had squandered their
financial windfall already. With numerous interviews and site visits, it was discovered that the lump sum form of monetary compensation
was to blame. With a huge sum of money received at once and a lack of financial education, many villagers squandered this newly gained
money on unnecessary purchases such as alcohol and expensive vehicles without investing for the long run in farmland and education
for their children. One recommendation proposed to the New Raipur Development Authority (NRDA) for future monetary compensation
design in times of rehabilitating people was to provide payments in installments rather than lump sums and educate the people about
investing the compensation money wisely. This would save them from wasting money they receive and the ensuing dissatisfaction of
squandering that money. Keywords—Compensation, Naya Raipur, Rehabilitation, Satisfaction Survey, Urban Planning.

new era of urbanization is dawning upon India. Once a primarily rural country, more than half a billion Indians
will live in urban areas within the next decade. Planning for such an influx of people into urban centers is a prodigious
task. Urban India in the next two decades will have a population almost twice the size of the United States and more million plus cities than Europe and North America combined.
Urban planning is the pivotal factor that is required to build a planned city of this scale and magnitude. Urban planning
seeks to enhance the quality of land at reasonable cost. In the failure of planning that has plagued India’s urban
centers, Naya Raipur sorely stands out, and proudly so. It ridicules the claim of the Indian government being able to do
nothing substantial of impeccable quality. Hopefully, Naya Raipur can catalyze growth in the relatively backward state of
Chhattisgarh, while also providing much required impetus to future planned developments across India. Of utmost
importance, it will dramatically change the local region, uplift lakhs from dire straits and completely transform the region for
the better. Naya Raipur Development Authority (NDRA) [1] is armed with the top urban planners in the country, who have
developed a dynamic master plan for Naya Raipurthat strives to build an inclusive and vibrant capital city while at the same
time provides flexibility for future development and desires.
The survey seeks to analyze effects of planned developments on sentiments of population affected by planned
developments of which Naya Raipur is a splendid example.

The state of Chhattisgarh in India was formed on November 1st, 2000 when sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking districts go
seceded from Madhya Pradesh. Raipur, the new capital of Chhattisgarh, witnessed unprecedented and unplanned growth
on a scale that had not been anticipated. The administrative capital did not have the requisite buildings and facilities to
function as a capital so the state government decided to build an entirely new planned city called Naya Raipur on the
outskirts of the Raipur metropolitan area. The aim of the city is not only to hold all the governmental institutions, but also to
become a regional financial, healthcare, cultural and educational hub. Most of all, it is to be a sustainable ecofriendly
green city splayed with verdant scenes, and is shaping up to be exactly the way it was dreamed.
Hopefully, Naya Raipur can catalyze growth in the relatively backward state of Chhattisgarh, while also providing
much required impetus to future planned developments across India. Of utmost importance, it will and surely will
dramatically change the local region, uplift lakhs from dire straits and completely transform the region for the better.

A.Aim of the Survey Research
As a part of the Naya Raipur development, Naya Raipur Development Authority (NRDA) had to acquire land from
many of the existing villages in the area. Some of these villagers were displaced out of their existing homes and were
rehabilitated in a newly built housing society by NRDA. Some lost their farmland for the new urban development and were
provided monetary compensation by NRDA. Some villagers lost both their farmland and their houses. Some villagers were
completely unaffected by the new development.
The aim of this field research was to study the satisfaction level of displaced population affected by the planned
development of Naya Raipur.
B. Design of the Survey Research Study
The research was conducted first-hand and involved survey
[2] questionnaires and interviews with affected villagers. Surveys are inclusive in the types and number of variables
that can be studied, require minimal investment to develop and administer, and are relatively easy for making generalizations
[3]. Surveys can also elicit information about attitudes that are otherwise difficult to measure using observational techniques.
It is important to note, however, that surveys only provide estimates for the true population, not exact measurements [3].
Finally, survey research uses a selected portion of the population from which the findings can later be generalized
back to the population. Based on this philosophy, a sample of convenience [4] population was selected. A sample of
convenience is the terminology used to describe a sample in which elements have been selected from the target population
on the basis of their accessibility or convenience to the researcher.
A questionnaire seeking information about satisfaction was designed based on Likert scale [2]. A Likert scale is a
psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs questionnaires. It is the most widely used approach to
scaling responses in survey research, such that the term is often used interchangeably with rating scale [5]. When
responding to a Likert questionnaire item, respondents specify their level of agreement or disagreement on a symmetric
agree-disagree scale for a series of statements. Thus, the range captures the intensity of their feelings for a given item. All the
questions included in the survey were unbiased and contained a definitive structure so that more accurate responses were
A convenience sample of 32villagers from two affected villages (Rakhi and Kayabandha) was selected and survey
questionnaire was administered by the author. Some of these villagers were displaced out of their existing homes and were
rehabilitated in a newly built housing society. From the sample, some had lost their farmland for the new urban
development. Some had lost both their farmland and their houses, while others were unaffected. The survey and
interviews were conducted in these two villages mentioned above. Questionnaires were made available in both English
and Hindi for easy understanding and to get accurate responses.
Questions included information about general demographics; satisfaction with rehabilitation and
compensation; the villagers’ perception of benefits of the new development for them as well as for the future generation and
society at large.

C.Data Collection and Analysis
The questionnaire was administered on location and later data was entered and analyzed on an Excel spreadsheet. Data
for all 32 people were entered and 32 records were created. Each questionnaire had a unique identification number. This
was done so that each questionnaire answered, that is each record, could be uniquely identified and searched for with

A. Analysis
Out of the 32 surveyed villagers, there were 17 males and 15 females (Fig. 1). Median age was 25-35 year (Fig. 2). 50%
the population surveyed was below 10th grade, 22% was above 10th grade and 28% did not go to school (Fig. 3).
11% of population surveyed was students (Fig. 4). In a household, on average, there were 2.2 earning members. The
average size of a household was 7.5 people (Fig. 5). With respect to household income, 58% population had an income
level of between Rs 5,000 to Rs 20,000 per month, 31% of the population had an income of less than Rs 5,000 per month and
11% were earning above Rs 20,000 per month (Fig. 6).
In terms of length of stay in their original homes, 81% of the surveyed population was living there for more than 10
years, 9% lived there between 1 to 10 years and the rest lived in their homes for less than a year (Fig. 7).
52% of the surveyed population lost their farmland, 30% lost both house and farmland, 7% lost only their house and 7%
lost nothing (Fig. 8).

In relation to compensation as per respondents, 56% received money only, 27% received money and free housing,
7% free housing and 7% did not receive any compensation (because they were unaffected with the new development)
(Fig. 9).
When it comes to compensation satisfaction – 26% were satisfied, 26% were dissatisfied and 37% extremely
dissatisfied (Fig. 10).
Regarding rehabilitation – 37% were satisfied, 8% were very satisfied, 30% dissatisfied and 25% extremely
dissatisfied (Fig. 11). As a result of rehabilitation, 39% stated that nothing changed for them, 27% felt that their conditions
improved by virtue of toilets, electricity, and a concrete house structure. The rest did not answer this question.
With respect the future impact of planned development on them, 53% villagers thought that the development will help
them, 19% mentioned that they were not sure while 28% thought it will not help them (Fig. 12). In response of the
question, “Will the development help the next



lump sum money is given as compensation, people tend not to use it judiciously and quite often they lose entire
compensation in unproductive ways such as purchasing a car, unnecessarily large expenditure. Some of the villagers had
already spent most of their windfall unwisely and as a result were dissatisfied with the compensation. Keeping this in mind,
compensation aspects can be better designed with different structure such as annuity payment or payments in installments.

While majority of the surveyed population was dissatisfied with the rehabilitation and compensation, they were very
positive about the success of the new development. Most thought that the new development will help them and their
future generation and benefit the society as a whole. One main reason for the dissatisfaction with the compensation seems to
be because lump sum payment was unwisely spent by some of the villagers. One recommendation for future compensation
design may be to look at payments in installments and educating the people about investing the money wisely.
The author is deeply indebted to Naya Raipur Development Authority (NRDA) team for giving valuable advice and
information pertaining to the project and urban planning in general. The author would also like to express his gratitude to
Shyam Bajaj, CEO of the NRDA, for his invaluable guidance in conducting this study and P Joy Ooman, the former
chairman of NRDA, for his insights on the project. The author also wishes to acknowledge villagers of the Rakhi and
Kayabanda villages who graciously participated in a survey. Lastly, the author could not have done this study without his
family’s support.
[1] Naya Raipur Development Authority,
[2] William B. Armstrong, “Planning your Survey, A Brief Primer on
Strategies and Approaches”,
[3] Prisclilla A. Glasow, “Fundamentals of Survey Research Methodology”,
April 2005, MITRE, Washington C3 Cente, Virginia.
[4] Joan Joseph Castillo, “Convenience Sampling”, web blog

[5] “Rating Scale”, Wikipedia,

Sagar Jajoo is a senior high school student at The International School
Bangalore, where he is pursuing his International Baccalaureate diploma.
He has done an internship at Janagraha, a non-profit organization based in
Bangalore, India. Janagraha works with citizens and the government to
improve the quality of life in Indian cities and towns. He has also done an
internship at, India’s leading online groceries company.
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology